Yukawa’s Meson theory of Nuclear Forces

In this article, we will discuss Yukawa’s Meson theory of Nuclear Forces. The mechanisms responsible for the strongly attracted nonelectric, non-gravitational short-range forces were given by Yukawa in 1935.
He predicted the existence of a new particle now called pi-meson, having a rest mass greater than that of an electron but less than that of the nucleon.
He proposed a theory of nuclear forces that involves these pi-meson’s & is known as Meson- theory of Nuclear forces.
According to this theory, all nucleons(protons & neutrons) consists of an identical course surrounded by a cloud of one or more pi -mesons.
The mesons may be neutral or may carry a positive charge or a negative charge and are denoted by π °, π +, π-  respectively.
The mesons are continuously exchanged between a neutron and a proton which generate the exchange process i.e. nuclear forces.
When a π+ meson jumps from a proton to a neutron. The proton is converted into a neutron and neutron is converted into a proton.
                  p —  π+ ~~> n
                  n π+ ~~> p
Conversely, when a π- meson jumps from a neutron to a proton the neutron is converted to a proton & proton is converted into a neutron.
                    n π- ~~> p
                    p + π- ~~> n
An exchange of π ° protons is converted into protons & neutrons are converted into neutrons.
                    ± π° ~~> p

                    n ± π° ~~> n

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