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In this article we will discuss Yukawa’s Meson theory of Nuclear Forces. The mechanisms responsible for the strongly attracted non electric, non gravitational short range forces was given by Yukawa in 1935.
Yukawa’s Meson theory of Nuclear Forces
He predicted the existence of a new particle now called pi-meson, having a rest mass greater than that of electron but less than that of nucleon.
He proposed a theory of nuclear forces which involves these pi-meson’s & is known as Meson- theory of Nuclear forces.
According to this theory all nucleons(protons & neutrons) consists of identical course surrounded by a cloud of one or more pi -mesons.
The mesons may be neutral or may carry a positive charge or a negative charge and are denoted by π° , π+ ,π-  respectively.
The mesons are continuously exchanged between a neutron and a proton which generate the exchange process i.e. nuclear forces.
When a π+ meson jumps from a proton to a neutron. The proton is converted into a neutron and neutron is converted into proton.
                  p —  π+ ~~> n
                  n π+ ~~> p
Conversely , when a π- meson jumps from a neutron to a proton the neutron is converted to a proton & proton is converted into a neutron.
                    n π- ~~> p
                    p + π- ~~> n
An exchange of  π° protons are converted into protons & neutrons are converted into neutrons.
                    ± π° ~~> p

                    n ± π° ~~> n

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