Orbitals; Shape of Orbitals ;Difference between Orbit & Orbitals

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Today i will discuss some important topic which are as follows..

1.Orbital
2.Shape of orbitals
3.Difference between Orbits & Orbitals

1. ORBITAL

It’s an arbitrary boundary which may enclose the region in which the probability of finding the electron density is the maximum or in simple word we also said that :

The region in the space around the nucleus where the probability of findings the electron is the maximum.


2. SHAPE OF ORBITALS :

There are two silent features of the orbital which is given below…

i) . The distribution of electron away from the nucleus this is known as the radial distribution.
     
 ii) . The other is “SHAPE” of the orbital & is the angular distribution… 

NOTE:- The radial distribution is basically dependent on the principle quantum number & the angular distribution depend upon electron and the angular momentum

There are mainly four types of shape of orbitals which are s,p,d,f orbitals..

NOTE :The shapes of f-atomic orbitals are not fully established. 

a) .  SHAPES of s-orbital :-

s orbital is present in the s-sub shell. Thus s-orbital with only one orientation has a spherical shape with uniform electron density along all the three axes.The probability of 1s electron is found to be maximum near the nucleus and decreases with the increase in the distance from the nucleus.

Fig 1. Shape of s-orbital


The region where the probability density reduces to zero is called nodal surface or simply node.


b) . SHAPES of p-orbitals :-

p-orbitals are present in the p-sub shell it has three possible orientations -1,0,+1 so its has three orbitals..Unlike for s-orbitals the boundary surface diagrams are not spherical in shape each p-orbital consists of two sections called lobs that are on either sides of the plane that passes through the nucleus is known as nodal plane.As the lobes lie on one of the x,y,z axis , so these three orbitals given the designations 2px, 2py, and 2pz. thus we say there are three orbitals whose axes are mutually perpendicular.

Fig 2. Shape of p-orbital


c) . SHAPES of d-orbitals :-

Magnetic orbital quantum number of d orbital is given as -2,-1,0,1,2 we say that there are five d-orbitals these orbitals are designated as dxy, dyz, dxz, dx2–y 2 and dz2.  



Fig 3. Shapes of d-orbital







The first four d-orbitals are similar to each other whereas the fifth d-orbital is different in shape it is regarded as doughnut shape while the other four d-orbitals have clover leaf shape..

 d). SHAPES of f-orbitals :-

These are the shapes of the seven f-orbitals (for a complex/molecule of cubic symmetry). As with the p and d-orbitals, the f-orbitals are averages (linear combinations) of the degenerate hydrogen-atom l = 3 orbitals that give spherical symmetry for a free atom.

Fig 4. Shape of f-orbitals 

3. Difference between Orbit & Orbitals:


An orbit is the well defined circular path around the nucleus in which the electron revolves..Basically it represents the movement of the electron around the nucleus in plane.
On the other hand an orbital is the region inthe space around the nucleus where the probability of findings the electron is the maximum.


I hope today tutorial helps you. Still any query write to us in comments.  

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