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1.Heat Engine :

Any device which converts heat energy continuously into mechanical work is called Heat engine.

e.g. (i) When water is boiled in vessel closed by a lid, then the steam generated inside through the lid off, showing thereby that high pressure steam can made to do work.

(ii) Also the high velocity wind caused by heating the part of earth surfaces by sun do work in driving wind mills.

All these simple and elementary facts indicate that transfer of heat to a body results in mechanical work and hence developed several type of modern heat engines-the steam engine, internal combustion engine and gas turbines.

2.Components of Heat Engine :

Heat engine consists of following components :-

Fig. A heat engine 

(i)Source:  A hot body at high temperature T1 from which  engine can draw heat is called Source.

(ii)Sink: A cold body at lower temperature T2 to which any amount of heat can be rejected is called the sink.
           
(iii)Working Substance:
The material which on being supplied with heat performs mechanical work is called working substance.

Let Q1 = amount of heat absorbed by working substance.

Q2 = amount of heat rejected to sink.

Therefore ,amount of work done per cycle
                           W = Q1 – Q2

3.Efficiency of Heat Engine :

It is defined as the ratio of total amount of work done per cycle to total heat absorbed per cycle. It is denoted by  η

This is Heat Engine,  its components & efficiency of heat engine.
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